• Kaixin

The introduction to Medicinal Chemistry No.2

Medicinal Chemistry

At the beginning of the 20th century the chemical treatments start to become the main stream, the compose of the medicines spring up as well. All of these bought us into the second stage of the ''Journey''

At 1923 the Germany scientist Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk found a compound to treat the infect caused by the Streptococcus pair and the Staphylococcus Aureus from the colorant. We are still using the compound nowadays which is known as Prontosil, and because of this discovery he won the Nobel Prize for that year. Few years after because of the discovery and the application of Penicillin it really pushes the process of discovering of other antibiotics like Streptomycin and Achromycin. All of these form a new level and area for medicine-the appearance of Semisynthetic Antibiotics. Later the new Synthetic drug start to appear. For example, like what the Germany Microbiologist P. Ehrlich did, he selected Neoarsphenamine (914) from nearly thousands of organ arsenic compounds, and Neoarsphenamine (914) will do a better job in treating Syphilis. Since then the medicinal chemistry started to become a single subject, also the Chemistry combined more tightly with the Medical Science.

However, the synthetic drugs and the Isolate drugs are used as medical treatments straight from laboratory, this means before they are used they had been skipped the strict animal test. Also to find out its effectiveness and toxicity we use the final treatment result as the only standard. And these caused the new problem. Finally, the happening of the ''Seal fetus event'' which is also known as ''Thalidomide event'' brought human's attention to the Adverse Drug Reaction.

The ''Thalidomide event'' is a sign which shows the finishing of the first stage for the modern medicine development, which is the second stage for the whole development as well.

Between 1940s and 1960s he third stage starts, it is a stage which the bio-medicine had a huge step of improvement, and this built a solid base for the studies of medicine in the molecules level.

In that period of time, bio-chemistry got a big improvement as the same time as huge amount of synthetic drugs flowed into the market, both of these really give out a push to the modern medicine, and brought this subject into a brand new developing category. Most of the vitamins have been successfully separated, also they have been nailed down the uses of them. Here are some examples, insulin was taken out from the pancreas of the cow and pig, it was successfully used in the area of treating the diabetes mellitus; the studies about the adrenalin, cortical hormone and all the other types of hormone reach the highest peak point in the history, also like lots of Basic dynamic changes such as glycol metabolism, fat metabolism, protein metabolism and energy metabolism have been explained one after the other.

The normal organs can stay healthy are just because they all have their own ability to defense and fight with the disease by themselves. Because of the producing of all different varieties of regulatory substances like protein, hormone, enzyme, antibody which are tightly related to all kinds of metabolisms in the inside of the organism, we can use their abilities of regulating to keep the organism works in the right way. According to this character, we can pick up neutral bio-materials from all different kinds organisms like, human, plants, microbe, and all marine organism, then we can use these materials to make bio-medicines, which save a lot of people's life in the future.

From the 1970s up to nowadays it is our fourth stage of the development. We entered the generation of the bio- medicine because of the mixing of Chemistry, Biology and medicine subjects is happening. Based on all the works have been done by the scientists like Har Gobind Khorana, Paul Berg and Robert S. Cohen, the first ever DNA Engineering experiment has been done in the human history.

Because of the fast development of Gene recombinant drugs and monoclonal antibodies, the bio-medicine has been largely expanded. Between the 1970s and 1990s, there were lots of new theory, techniques came out also due to lots of communications have been taking places, there were lots of new subjects have been formed, all of these encouraged the development of the medicinal chemistry. This period of time has been thought as the key period of time for medicinal chemistry because it linked up two different generations.

This is a brief summary of what is medicinal chemistry and how it actually developed from time to time. Hope you enjoyed reading it.

Now take a deep breath and let us start our true business. Allow me to take you through the journey of visiting different types of medicines. In the next few chapters I will do several different categories of medicines, and in each different categories I will give out some specific examples also I will write some events that happened in history which related to the medicine. However, the most important thing is always Chemistry itself!