Fig (3.1.2).1 Ketamine Hydrochloride (C13H16ClNOHCl)
In this paragraph, I am going to bring up the other major anaesthetics drugs, the Intravenous anaesthetics. According to its name, we can find out what is the difference between this type and the last type-the way of using the drug. For the intravenous anaesthetics instead of sucking it into our lung, we just need to inject the anaesthetic drugs into our intravenous. Compare to the inhalation anaesthetics, intravenous anaesthetics have some advantages; because it is injected into our bodies so this can avoid the stimulation of the air tube, also it can avoid the fact that patients suck in unnecessary toxic gas, it has a shorter introduction time than inhalation ones as well. However, it is not as easy to control as the inhalation ones; such as it is not easy to control the amount which gives out to the patients and so on. Now, here are some examples.
Ketamine hydrochloride (CI-581) has the molecular formula of C13H16ClNOHCl. (Fig (3.1.2).1) It will selectively to depress the medial nucleus of the cerebral ganglia, the ascending conduction from the medulla spinals to the net like structure and the system of the excitatory edge in order achieve the effect of anesthesia in the human body; however, among all of these processes the main step which causes the effect of the anesthesia is the depressing process of the delivery of the excitatory nerves. Ketamine hydrochloride does not only act as an anaesthesia medicine it also is made into an illegal drug which has another name of ‘K powder’-Ketamine. (Fig (3.1.2).2)
Fig (3.1.2).2 Ketamine also known as K powder
Same as any other illegal drugs it can bring us as human a lot of dangerous. If someone frequently takes the ‘K powder’ their logic thinking ability and the memory ability will get damaged badly. Because the Ketamine has the chemistry property that it can be mixed into alcohol with any percentage so it is always being used in some of the pub and private party which is extremely dangerous because after you drink the alcohol which contains the ‘K powder’ you will highly likely to have an impulse of have sex, or to be overly excited and megrim; the result of all of these is you are going to do something which will cause damage or danger either to yourself or other people. This not applies on the Ketamine but applies to all the other drugs, for Ketamine, it is not the only drug which has this problem. This told us that at the same time of the drugs bring human hopes and positive impacts they will bring us a huge hit in a negative way as well. Thus, we have to use the drug wisely and correctly or it can destroy easily. Just like any other disease.
Here is the second example of the Intravenous Anesthetic-Sodium Hydroxybutyrate. (Fig (3.1.2).3)Sodium Hydroxybutyrate has a small impact on the heart and the venous, therefore it is very suitable to be used in a surgery for children and old people. It needs a long time for waiting for the drug to start its anaesthesia effect in the human body for it spreads widely after it is injected into the human body. Sodium Hydroxybutyrate is a white powder like a drug. It has a chemical compound formula of C4H8NaO3. It can be made by opening up the ring of the Gamma-Butyrolactone. (Fig (3.1.2).4)Due to its small impact on the body as we just said it is always being used in the surgery for the head and neck, pregnancy and other important parts of the body. Like other anaesthetic drugs, it will depress the Central Control Nerves in order to achieve the effect of the anaesthesia. However, for the amount of it which we use in the clinical environment is enough for deep sleep but not enough for killing the pain. Because of this, it will normally be used as an anaesthetic introducer. It has a small impact to the venous; it lowers the body temperature a little bit after the patient used it but it will not be low enough to cause the shiver reaction; it does not affect the eye pressure as well. These are the reasons explain why it is popular to use in the clinical environment especially when it comes up to the serious surgeries as what I just said.
Fig (3.1.2).3 Anesthetic-Sodium Hydroxybutyrate Fig (3.1.2).4 Making Sodium Hydroxybutyrate
Here are the two detailed examples of the intravenous anaesthetic. After some introductions for the two major types of the anaesthetics. I think now will be the right time to go deeper to look at the smaller branch of the Narcotic drug which is the Opium drugs...